Essay In Marathi Language On Rainy Season In Puerto

A Tropical monsoon climate (occasionally known as a tropical wet climate or a tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate) is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am". Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64.4 °F) in every month of the year and feature wet and dry seasons, as Tropical savanna climates do.

Tropical monsoon climates however has its driest month seeing on average less than 60 mm but more than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of precipitation.[1]:200–1 This latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical savanna climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation and also less than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of precipitation. In essence, a tropical monsoon climate tends to either see more rainfall than a tropical savanna climate or have less pronounced dry seasons. Additionally, a tropical monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a tropical savanna climate. This climate has a driest month which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator.[2]

Versions[edit]

There are generally two versions of a tropical monsoon climate:

  • Less pronounced dry seasons. Regions with this variation of the tropical monsoon climate typically see copious amounts of rain during the wet season(s), usually in the form of frequent thunderstorms. However, unlike most tropical savanna climates, a sizeable amount of precipitation also falls during the dry season(s). In essence, this version of the tropical monsoon climate generally has less pronounced dry seasons than tropical savanna climates.
  • Extraordinarily rainy wet seasons and pronounced dry seasons. This variation features pronounced dry seasons similar in length and character to dry seasons observed in tropical savanna climates. However, this is followed by a sustained period (or sustained periods) of extraordinary rainfall. In some instances, up to (and sometimes in excess of) 1,000 mm of precipitation is observed per month for two or more consecutive months. Tropical savanna climates generally do not see this level of sustained rainfall.

Distribution[edit]

Tropical monsoon climates are most commonly found in South and Central America. However, there are sections of South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa (particularly West and Central Africa), the Caribbean and North America that also feature this climate.

Factors[edit]

The major controlling factor over a tropical monsoon climate is its relationship to the monsoon circulation. The monsoon is a seasonal change in wind direction. In Asia, during the summer (or high-sun season) there is an onshore flow of air (air moving from ocean towards land). In the “winter” (or low-sun season) an offshore air flow (air moving from land toward water) is prevalent. The change in direction is due to the difference in the way water and land heat. October is the hottest month no matter whether is it in the southern or northern hemisphere. This is because October is the shoulder season of the year as if it is the end of the wet season and no winter winds blowing ( Northeast monsoon).

Changing pressure patterns that affect the seasonality of precipitation also occur in Africa though it generally differs from the way it operates in Asia. During the high-sun season, the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) induces rain. During the low-sun season, the subtropical high creates dry conditions. The monsoon climates of Africa, and the Americas for that matter, are typically located along tradewind coasts.

Notable cities with a Tropical monsoon climate[edit]

  • Cairns, Queensland, Australia
  • Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
  • Miami, Florida, United States
  • San Juan, Puerto Rico
  • Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
  • Semarang, Indonesia
  • Chittagong, Bangladesh
  • Malé, Maldives
  • Conakry, Guinea
  • Vigan, Philippines

Charts of selected cities[edit]

Chittagong
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND

 

 

5

 

 

26

13

 

 

28

 

 

28

15

 

 

64

 

 

31

19

 

 

150

 

 

32

23

 

 

264

 

 

32

24

 

 

533

 

 

31

25

 

 

597

 

 

30

25

 

 

518

 

 

30

24

 

 

320

 

 

31

24

 

 

180

 

 

31

23

 

 

56

 

 

29

18

 

 

15

 

 

26

14

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: BBC [1]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND

 

 

0.2

 

 

79

55

 

 

1.1

 

 

82

59

 

 

2.5

 

 

88

66

 

 

5.9

 

 

90

73

 

 

10

 

 

90

75

 

 

21

 

 

88

77

 

 

24

 

 

86

77

 

 

20

 

 

86

75

 

 

13

 

 

88

75

 

 

7.1

 

 

88

73

 

 

2.2

 

 

84

64

 

 

0.6

 

 

79

57

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Conakry
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND

 

 

1

 

 

32

19

 

 

1

 

 

33

20

 

 

3

 

 

33

21

 

 

22

 

 

34

22

 

 

137

 

 

33

21

 

 

396

 

 

32

20

 

 

1130

 

 

30

20

 

 

1104

 

 

30

21

 

 

617

 

 

31

21

 

 

295

 

 

31

20

 

 

70

 

 

32

21

 

 

8

 

 

32

20

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [3]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND

 

 

0

 

 

90

66

 

 

0

 

 

92

68

 

 

0.1

 

 

92

70

 

 

0.9

 

 

92

72

 

 

5.4

 

 

92

69

 

 

16

 

 

89

68

 

 

44

 

 

86

69

 

 

43

 

 

86

69

 

 

24

 

 

87

69

 

 

12

 

 

88

69

 

 

2.8

 

 

90

70

 

 

0.3

 

 

90

68

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Manaus
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND

 

 

260

 

 

31

23

 

 

288

 

 

30

23

 

 

314

 

 

31

23

 

 

300

 

 

31

23

 

 

256

 

 

31

23

 

 

114

 

 

31

23

 

 

88

 

 

31

23

 

 

58

 

 

33

23

 

 

83

 

 

33

24

 

 

126

 

 

33

24

 

 

183

 

 

32

24

 

 

217

 

 

31

24

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [2][3]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND

 

 

10

 

 

87

74

 

 

11

 

 

87

74

 

 

12

 

 

87

74

 

 

12

 

 

87

74

 

 

10

 

 

87

74

 

 

4.5

 

 

88

73

 

 

3.4

 

 

88

73

 

 

2.3

 

 

91

73

 

 

3.3

 

 

91

74

 

 

4.9

 

 

91

75

 

 

7.2

 

 

90

75

 

 

8.5

 

 

88

74

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Miami
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND

 

 

51

 

 

24

15

 

 

53

 

 

25

16

 

 

61

 

 

26

18

 

 

72

 

 

28

20

 

 

158

 

 

30

22

 

 

237

 

 

31

24

 

 

145

 

 

32

25

Worldwide zones of tropical monsoon climate (Am).

The climate of Puerto Rico in the Köppen climate classification is predominately tropical rainforest. Temperatures throughout the year are warm to hot, averaging near 85 °F (29 °C) in lower elevations and 70 °F (21 °C) in the mountains. Easterly trade winds pass across the island year round while the rainy season stretches from April into November.[1] The relatively cool trade winds are blocked by the mountains of the Cordillera Central which causes rain shadows and sharp variations in the temperature and wind speed over short distances. About a quarter of the average annual rainfall for Puerto Rico occurs during tropical cyclones, which are more frequent during La Niña years.

Temperature[edit]

Temperatures range from 70 to 90 °F (21 to 32 °C) in the lower elevations, while higher elevations in the central part of the island experience temperatures between 61 and 80 °F (16 and 27 °C) year round. The temperature in the south is a few degrees higher than the north. Between winter and summer, there is only a temperature swing of around 6 °F (3.3 °C). Coastal water temperatures average between 77 °F in February to 87 °F in August. The highest temperature ever recorded was 103 °F (39 °C) at San Lorenzo, while the lowest temperature ever recorded was 38 °F (3 °C) at Aibonito.

Climate data for Adjuntas Substation. Elevation: 1,720 feet (520 m).
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)77
(25)
78
(26)
81
(27)
81
(27)
83
(28)
84
(29)
85
(29)
85
(29)
85
(29)
84
(29)
82
(28)
80
(27)
82.1
(27.8)
Average low °F (°C)55
(13)
54
(12)
55
(13)
60
(16)
66
(19)
68
(20)
69
(21)
69
(21)
69
(21)
66
(19)
60
(16)
57
(14)
62.3
(17.1)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]
Climate data for Aibonito. Elevation 2,320 feet (710 m).
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)74
(23)
75
(24)
77
(25)
78
(26)
79
(26)
80
(27)
81
(27)
81
(27)
81
(27)
80
(27)
78
(26)
75
(24)
78.3
(25.8)
Average low °F (°C)59
(15)
59
(15)
61
(16)
63
(17)
65
(18)
66
(19)
67
(19)
67
(19)
67
(19)
66
(19)
65
(18)
63
(17)
64
(17.6)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]
Climate data for Cerro Maravilla. Elevation: 3,950 feet (1,200 m).
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)65
(18)
67
(19)
69
(21)
69
(21)
71
(22)
73
(23)
75
(24)
75
(24)
73
(23)
72
(22)
71
(22)
68
(20)
70.7
(21.6)
Average low °F (°C)45
(7)
45
(7)
49
(9)
55
(13)
59
(15)
61
(16)
62
(17)
62
(17)
61
(16)
61
(16)
59
(15)
50
(10)
55.8
(13.2)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]
Climate data for Lajas Substation. Elevation 120 feet (37 m).
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)84
(29)
86
(30)
87
(31)
88
(31)
89
(32)
91
(33)
92
(33)
93
(34)
93
(34)
90
(32)
89
(32)
87
(31)
89.1
(31.8)
Average low °F (°C)60
(16)
61
(16)
62
(17)
65
(18)
70
(21)
72
(22)
74
(23)
75
(24)
74
(23)
71
(22)
66
(19)
62
(17)
67.7
(19.8)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]
Climate data for Ponce 4 E. 40 feet (12 m).
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)86
(30)
86
(30)
87
(31)
87
(31)
88
(31)
90
(32)
90
(32)
91
(33)
90
(32)
89
(32)
88
(31)
87
(31)
88.3
(31.3)
Average low °F (°C)67
(19)
66
(19)
67
(19)
69
(21)
72
(22)
74
(23)
74
(23)
73
(23)
73
(23)
72
(22)
70
(21)
68
(20)
70.4
(21.3)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]

Temperature records[edit]

Climate data for Puerto Rico
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)98.1
(36.7)
99.7
(37.6)
99.5
(37.5)
102.6
(39.2)
104
(40.0)
102.9
(39.4)
104.7
(40.4)
104
(40.0)
103.1
(39.5)
104.5
(40.3)
98.6
(37.0)
97
(36.1)
104.7
(40.4)
Record low °F (°C)39.7
(4.3)
39.6
(4.2)
37.4
(3.0)
43.2
(6.2)
49.3
(9.6)
50
(10.0)
55.4
(13.0)
55.6
(13.1)
48.7
(9.3)
45.9
(7.7)
41.9
(5.5)
40.1
(4.5)
37.4
(3.0)
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net - Climate Monitor[3] — Meteo.ru - Baseline Climatological Data Sets[4]
Source #2: NOAA NCDC - Climate Data Online[5]

Climate data[edit]

Climate data for San Juan Marin Int'l, Puerto Rico (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1898–present)[a]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)92
(33)
96
(36)
96
(36)
97
(36)
96
(36)
97
(36)
95
(35)
97
(36)
97
(36)
98
(37)
96
(36)
94
(34)
98
(37)
Mean maximum °F (°C)87.5
(30.8)
88.2
(31.2)
90.2
(32.3)
91.8
(33.2)
92.7
(33.7)
92.9
(33.8)
92.3
(33.5)
92.7
(33.7)
93.5
(34.2)
92.8
(33.8)
90.3
(32.4)
87.7
(30.9)
94.7
(34.8)
Average high °F (°C)83.2
(28.4)
83.7
(28.7)
84.9
(29.4)
86.2
(30.1)
87.5
(30.8)
88.9
(31.6)
88.7
(31.5)
89.2
(31.8)
89.2
(31.8)
88.4
(31.3)
85.9
(29.9)
83.9
(28.8)
86.6
(30.3)
Daily mean °F (°C)77.6
(25.3)
77.9
(25.5)
78.9
(26.1)
80.3
(26.8)
81.9
(27.7)
83.3
(28.5)
83.4
(28.6)
83.7
(28.7)
83.5
(28.6)
82.6
(28.1)
80.6
(27)
78.7
(25.9)
81.03
(27.23)
Average low °F (°C)72.0
(22.2)
72.0
(22.2)
72.9
(22.7)
74.4
(23.6)
76.3
(24.6)
77.7
(25.4)
78.1
(25.6)
78.2
(25.7)
77.8
(25.4)
76.9
(24.9)
75.2
(24)
73.4
(23)
75.4
(24.1)
Mean minimum °F (°C)67.1
(19.5)
67.8
(19.9)
68.5
(20.3)
70.0
(21.1)
71.8
(22.1)
73.6
(23.1)
73.6
(23.1)
74.0
(23.3)
73.7
(23.2)
73.0
(22.8)
70.9
(21.6)
68.9
(20.5)
66.7
(19.3)
Record low °F (°C)61
(16)
62
(17)
60
(16)
64
(18)
66
(19)
66
(19)
69
(21)
68
(20)
69
(21)
67
(19)
65
(18)
62
(17)
60
(16)
Average rainfall inches (mm)3.76
(95.5)
2.39
(60.7)
1.95
(49.5)
4.68
(118.9)
5.90
(149.9)
4.41
(112)
5.07
(128.8)
5.46
(138.7)
5.77
(146.6)
5.59
(142)
6.35
(161.3)
5.02
(127.5)
56.35
(1,431.3)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)17.613.912.213.315.714.418.618.517.417.719.619.6198.5
Average relative humidity (%)74.072.471.071.374.975.575.976.476.476.976.274.774.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours237.4231.2282.0268.3255.2259.4280.8267.8234.7227.2202.4217.42,963.8
Percent possible sunshine69727671636569686463606467
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[7][8][9], The Weather Channel[10]

Wind[edit]

Persistent 19-knot (35 km/h; 22 mph) trade winds move from east to west across the island year round. When the trades winds are lighter, sea breeze and land breeze circulations dominate.[11] Every five years or so a hurricane brings high intensity wind.[12]

Rainfall[edit]

There is a pronounced rainy season from April to November. Due to the island's topography, rainfall varies greatly across the island. Pico del Este averages 171.09 inches (4,346 mm) of rainfall yearly while Magueyes Island averages only 29.32 inches (745 mm) a year.[13][14]

Severe weather[edit]

  • Puerto Rico experiences the Atlantic hurricane season, similar to the remainder of the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic oceans. On average, a quarter of its annual rainfall is contributed from tropical cyclones, which is more prevalent during periods of La Niña than El Niño.[21] A cyclone of tropical storm strength passes near Puerto Rico, on average, every 5 years.[12] A hurricane passes in the vicinity of the island, on average, every 11 years. Only one Category 5 hurricane has struck the island since 1851, the Lake Okeechobee Hurricane of September 1928.[22]
  • Sometimes waterspouts form off the coast during showers and thunderstorms, particularly off the west coast, with tornadoes and hailstorms possible in the inner sea. These thunderstorms may be formed due to tropical waves, tropical cyclones, and frontal boundaries which become stationary across the region between fall and spring.

Weather by season[edit]

The Wet Season begins in May and lasts to late October. The weather is hot and humid with thunderstorms in the afternoon, especially in August and September. Trade winds bring cool summer breezes in the north and east of Puerto Rico, but due to the topography of the island, these winds do not reach the coast south and west, causing much higher temperatures than in the north. During humid summer days, the heat index can reach 115 °F (47 °C) and actual temperatures can reach 100 °F (38 °C). Sometimes the wind shifts from the south, causing an inverse pattern, where the heat south of the island moves to the north, causing temperatures in the mid 90s (35 °C) in San Juan and low humidity. The month of June is usually the driest month of the summer. During June and July the precipitation is mostly caused by the effects of humidity and heat of the island. The peak of the hurricane season comes in September. Weather conditions can be very rainy as tropical lows pass near the island, with frequent strong thunderstorms. By early November the tropical cyclone season fades and the weather becomes drier and generally sunny.

Late November brings the Dry Season which lasts through late April. Weakening cool fronts from the north lower temperatures and humidity, and dry and sunny conditions prevail. In San Juan in the winter months, high temperatures reach 77–87 °F (25–30 °C) with an average high of 83 °F and lows down to 66–76 °F (19–24 °C), giving an average of 71 °F (22 °C). In the central area of the island the elevation and reduced sea effects bring the minimum temperatures to 55–65 °F (13–18 °C) on average. After fronts pass the temperature may drop to the 40s (4–9 °C) in the mountains, in the 50s (10–15 °C) in the valleys, and in the low 60s (16 °C to 20 °C) in the coastal zone. In general the climate in the dry season is sunny, with little change from day to day. February and March are often quite dry, sunny and hot.

Sun[edit]

The sunrise varies from 5:30 a.m. in summer and 7:00 a.m. in winter. Sunset varies between 5:40 p.m. in winter and 7:10 p.m. in summer. Puerto Rico does not use daylight saving time. The ultraviolet index or UV index varies from 10+ in the summer and a maximum of 7 in winter.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Köppen climate types of Puerto Rico
  1. ^Official records for San Juan were kept at downtown from November 1898 to December 1955 and at San Juan Marin Int'l since January 1956.[6]
  1. ^Matt Carter and J.B. Elsner. Monthly Rainfall Climatology for Puerto Rico. Retrieved on January 24, 2008.
  2. ^ abcde"Historical Climate Data For Puerto Rico". Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
  3. ^"Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved May 7, 2013. 
  4. ^"Meteo.ru". Retrieved May 7, 2013. 
  5. ^"NOAA NCDC Climate Data Online". Retrieved May 7, 2013. 
  6. ^ThreadEx
  7. ^"NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  8. ^"Station Name: SAN JUAN L M MARIN AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
  9. ^"WMO Climate Normals for SAN JUAN/ISLA VERDE INT'L ARP,PR 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  10. ^"Monthly Averages for San Juan, PR – Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-04-16. 
  11. ^Shawn P. Bennett, Vanda Grusbisic, and Roy M. Rasmussen. GRAVITY WAVES, RAINBANDS, AND DEEP CONVECTION INDUCED BY TRADE WIND FLOW PAST PUERTO RICO. Retrieved on January 24, 2008.
  12. ^ abAlexa J. Andrews. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Tropical Storm and Hurricane Strikes in the Bahamas, and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  13. ^Southern Region Climate Center. Pico del Este Climatology. Retrieved on January 23, 2008.
  14. ^Southern Region Climate Center. Magueyes Island Climatology. Retrieved on January 23, 2008.
  15. ^ abcdeRoth, David M. (October 18, 2017). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Data. United States Weather Prediction Center. Retrieved November 26, 2017. 
  16. ^"Hurricane Maria Live Updates: In Puerto Rico, the Storm 'Destroyed Us'". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  17. ^Roth, David M (June 27, 2007). "Tropical Storm Isabel – October 4 – 16, 1985". United States Weather Prediction Center. Retrieved May 1, 2012. 
  18. ^Higgs, Ralph L (1954). "Severe Floods of October 12–15, 1954 in Puerto Rico"(PDF). Monthly Weather Review. American Meteorological Society. 82 (10): 301. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1954)082<0301:SFOOIP>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0493. Retrieved January 8, 2008. 
  19. ^Geddings, R. M (August 1899), Climatological Data, Puerto Rico 
  20. ^Avila, Lixion A; Cangialosi, John P (December 14, 2011). Hurricane Irene(PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Hurricane Center. p. 14. Retrieved June 2, 2012. 
  21. ^Edward B. Rodgers, Robert F. Adler, Harold F. Pierce. Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Atlantic Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites.
  22. ^Aurelio Mercado and Harry Justiniano. Coastal Hazards of Puerto Rico. Retrieved on January 23, 2008.

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