Essays and publications relating to Holocaust study are posted here. They are focused at elementary through college students. Other essays are designed for a generic population. Whenever possible entire essays and publications are included and may be downloaded and used directly in the classroom. In other instances a sample from a book of essays is presented. Complete essay and publication information can be obtained directly from the “owner’s” listed address.
If you have one or more essays or publications to submit for possible inclusion here, please send them to:
Dr. Mark Nataupsky, President
Holocaust Education Foundation, Inc.
P.O. Box 6153 Newport News, VA 23606-6153
by E-mail at: info@Holocaust-trc.org
A list of the essays and publications is presented below. Please click the title to obtain detailed information from each document.
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Generations of the Shoah International (GSI)
Summer 2017 Newsletter
The Generations of the Shoah International (GSI) newsletter has information on Holocaust education and commemoration programs from around the world. It also has Holocaust-related news articles and videos dealing with issues of restitution, anti-Semitism, Holocaust denial and more. This is the most comprehensive listing of conference and program information.
UNESCO asks the question:
“Why teach about the Holocaust”?
(Posted with permission by UNESCO.)
“What can be learned about preventing genocide and mass atrocities through study of the Holocaust and other Nazi crimes?”
Other genocides have occurred after the Holocaust, on several continents. How can we draw better lessons from the past?
Education about the Holocaust:
How Does It Help Build a Better World?
Address to Annual Conference of the Association of Holocaust Organizations
June 8, 2004
by Jerry Fowler
Staff Director, Committee on Conscience
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Jerry Fowler, Staff Director of the Committee on Conscience for the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum addressed an annual meeting of the Association of Holocaust Organizations on June 8, 2004. His inspiration for Holocaust education is that “What I believe, with all my heart and soul, is that in that space between what can happen and what will happen is where we stand. And what we do, what we choose, quite simply, whether we stand by or stand up, can make all the difference in the world. And learning about the Holocaust makes crystal clear the consequences of standing in that space, the consequences of choices that are made.”
In Sudan, Staring Genocide in the Face
Sunday, June 6, 2004; Page B02
by Jerry Fowler
On June 6, 2004 the Washington post published an article by Jerry Fowler, Staff Director of the Committee on Conscience for the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . He stated that “I was seeing with my own eyes what I had been hearing about for several months: Children are dying almost every day in refugee camps in eastern Chad, despite a vigorous international effort to get food, water and other essentials to the more than 100,000 who have fled in fear from the Darfur region of neighboring Sudan.
Remarks by Konrad Scharinger
Economic Counselor at the German Embassy, Washington,
Presented at the 17th Annual Conference of the Association of Holocaust Organizations,
Baltimore, Maryland June 11, 2002
Konrad Scharinger spoke about the “moral and historical background of the German compensation efforts” in the aftermath of the Holocaust to the Association of Holocaust Organizations. He also discussed the Foundation “Remembrance, Responsibility and the Future.” At the time of his presentation, Scharinger was the Economic Counselor at the German Embassy in Washington, DC. The full text of his comments are posted with his permission.
Faith in God and Man After Auschwitz: Theological Implications
Yad Vashem — April 2002
by Emil L. Fackenheim
Philosopher Emil L. Fackenheim wrestles with the concepts of God and Auschwitz. His essay “Faith in God and Man After Auschwitz: Theological Implications” was presented at Yad Vashem in April 2002. It is posted here with permission from Emil L. Fackenheim.
A HOLOCAUST LEGACY 1939-2002
published with permission by Dr.George Halasz
Dr. George Halasz, a psychiatrist in Australia, takes a clinical look at the question: Has there been a process of cultural abuse perpetrated on the Palestinian children the same way that the Nazi propaganda machine abused the youth of Germany in the 30’s? For more than 20 years he has dealt with suicidal teens in a clinical setting. Dr. Halasz is the child of a Holocaust survivor of Auschwitz. The entire document is posted on the Holocaust Teacher Resource Center web site.
Humor in the Holocaust:
Its Critical, Cohesive, and Coping Functions
by John Morreall, Ph.D.
published with permission by Dr.Marcia Sachs Littell
This paper was presented at the 1997 Annual Scholars’ Conference on the Holocaust and the Churches, Hearing The Voices: Teaching the Holocaust to future Generations. It is available on a CD-ROM of all Scholars’ Conference papers 1990-2000 published by Vista-Intermedia and edited by Marcia Sachs Littell.
‘We are all targets’
published with permission of the Jerusalem Post
(September 24) – What is at stake is nothing less than the survival of our civilization, former prime minister Binyamin Netanyahu told the US House of Representatives’ Government Reform Committee last Thursday. His address to the committee in the wake of the terror attacks on New York and Washington is published here in full.
Presentation to the Association of Holocaust Organizations
16th Annual Conference, June 2001
by Dr. Shimon Samuels
Dr. Shimon Samuels is the Director for International Liaison at the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Paris. The text of his presentation is reproduced in its entirety. A short video clip from his presentation also is included.
Select to view text and video clip.
Presentation to The Amsterdam Conference on Remembrance
by Professor Yehuda Bauer
Professor Bauer is the Academic Advisor to the Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research. His presentation was made in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, during the Task Force’s meeting in May 2001.
Select to view speech and video clip
David Katz – A Holocaust Survivor
David Katz provides a personal account of the Holocaust through his autobiography. MayAnne, his wife, conveys the Holocaust through her paintings. Click the title link above to view these exhibits.
David responds to questions about his personal experiences of the Holocaust in the video clips included with this essay.
pictured: David and MaryAnne Katz 1993
Handicapped: Victims of the Nazi Era, 1933-1945
This brochure describes the Nazi treatment of handicaped people from 1933-1945. Soon after Hiltler took power, the Nazis formulated policy based on their vision of biologically “pure” population, to create an “Aryan master race.” The “Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases,” proclaimed July 14, 1933, forced the sterilization of all persons who suffered from diseases considered hereditary, such as mental illness (schizophfrenia and manic depression), retardation (“congenital feeble-mindedness”), physical deformithy, epilepsy, blindness, deafness, and severe alcolholism.
Homosexuals:Victims of the Nazi Era , 1933-1945
As part of the Nazis’ attempt to purify German society and propagate an “Aryan master race,” they condemned homosexuals as “socially aberrant.” Soon after taking office on January 30, 1933, Hitler banned all homosexual and lesbian organizations. Brownshirted storm troopers raided the institutions and gathering places of homosexuals. Greatly weakened and driven underground, this subculture had flourished in the relative freedom of the 1920s, in the pubs and cafes of Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Bremen, and other cities.
Jehovah’s Witnesses: Victims of the Nazi Era 1933-1945
Jehovah’s Witnesses endured intense persecution under the Nazi regime. Actions against the religious group and its individual members spanned the Nazi years 1933 to 1945. Unlike Jews and Sinti and Roma “Gypsies”), persecuted and killed by virtue of their birth, Jehovah’s Witnesses had the opportunity to escape persecution and personal harm by renouncing their religious beliefs. The courage the vast majority displayed in refusing to do so, in the face of torture, maltreatment in concentration camps, and sometimes execution, won them the respect of many contemporaries.
Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era 1933-1945
During World War II Poland suffered greatly under five years of German occupation. Nazi ideology viewed “Poles”- the predominantly Roman Catholic ethnic majority- as “sub-humans” occupying lands vital to Germany. As part of the policy to destroy the Polish resistance, the Germans killed many of the nation’s political, religious, and intellectual leaders. They also kidnapped children judged racially suitable for adoption by Germans and confined Poles in dozens of prisons and concentration and forced labor camps, where many perished.
SINTI & ROMA: Victims of the Nazi Era 1933-1945
Between 1933 and 1945 and Roma (“Gypsies”) suffered greatly as victims of Nazi persecution genocide. Building on long-held prejudices, the Nazi regime viewed Gypsies both as “asocials” (outside “normal” society) and as racial “inferiors”—believed to threaten the biological purity and strength of the “superior Aryan” race. During World War II, the Nazis and their collaborators killed tens of thousands of Sinti and Roma men, women, and children across German-occupied Europe.
The Holocaust Education Program Resource Guide
Hampton Roads Section National council of Jewish Women in conjunction with Virginia War Museum
The study provides an educational experience through which students can develop an understanding of how the holocaust emerged from a progression of events. It also provides a basis from which students can draw conclusions about what society can learn from these events and how they relate to current events.
This booklet is designed to provide teachers with information and suggested activities that will help students participating in the Holocaust Education Program obtain the most from their program. It is divided into background information and pre- and post-visit activities. The information provided has been developed to support the program lecture while providing a vehicle to assist the teacher in student preparation. Post-visit activities have been designed to provide additional information sources and suggestions for teacher-led exercises.
To Save One Life
The Story of Righteous Gentiles
(This document requires Acrobat Reader)
Please write to Dr. Shulman for a free paper copy of this brochure.
Teachers may request a class set at no cost.
Mail your request to:
Dr. William L. Shulman,
Director Holocaust Resource Center and Archives
Queensborough Community College
The City University of New York
222-05 56th Avenue
Bayside, New York 11364-1497
A Global Perspective on Working with Holocaust Survivors
and the Second Generation
Editor: John Lemberger
As the population of Holocaust survivors ages, their needs are becoming more complex and more acute; more attention is also being drawn to the need to understand the impact of the Holocaust on the children of survivors and provide support to this group.
This volume presents the proceedings of the Preconference Institute on Working with Holocaust Survivors and the Second Generation, held July 3-4, 1994, in Jerusalem. The interest generated by the conference and the high level of participation attested to the importance and timeliness of the issues raised.
Child Survivors: Forms of Intervention
The present collection of articles is the first in the Intervision series. The series reflects the psychological thinking of psychotherapists at the Jerusalem branch of AMCHA. Intervision constitutes an arena created to share with the wider community the specific therapeutic experience which has accumulated in the Jerusalem branch over the years.
This first volume is the result of an exciting, stimulating group effort by the authors. The title “Intervision” attempts to express the vital importance of merging different points of view, of becoming acquainted with and understanding the specific needs of persons who experienced severe developmental trauma.
THE UNIQUENESS OF THE HOLOCAUST
by Alex Grobman, Ph.D.
Dr. Alex Grobman wrote an insightful paper that investigates whether or not the Holocaust was a unique event. He compares the Holocaust to other horrific mass killings and assesses elements that are common or different in each of them. This paper can be an essential tool in studying and understanding the Holocaust.
What Did They Know? American Jews and the Shoah
by Alex Grobman, Ph.D.
Dr. Grobman presents the data showing when information about the Holocaust was printed in various newspapers (e.g., the New York Times). He also addresses the issue of why many people did not believe those reports.
THE PROCESS OF COMMEMORATING DEEDS OF HEROISM
by Alex Grobman Ph.D.
In 1953, the Knesset passed the Martyrst and Heroes’ Remembrance Law creating Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, Israel’s national memorial to the six million Jews. As part of its mandate, Yad Vashem established a Commission for the Designation of the Righteous to honor “the high minded Gentiles who risked their lives to save Jews.” The commission is chaired by a member of the Supreme Court of Israel.
KEEPING THE RESCUERS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
by Alex Grobman Ph.D.
“Stories about Christian rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust threaten to erase from our collective memory the epidemic outbreak of gross cruelty that accompanied the advance of the Nazi terror machine . . .” declared Fanya Gottesfeld Heller, a survivor of the Holocaust, in a letter to The New York Times. Although she had been saved by righteous Christians, she is distressed that “not only the guilty . . . prefer anointing the heroes to condemning the villains,” but “an entire generation of Jewish youth, secure in their own society, wants desperately to be assured that the killers, rather than the rescuers, were the aberration.”1
The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community.
During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals.
WHAT WAS THE HOLOCAUST?
In 1933, the Jewish population of Europe stood at over nine million. Most European Jews lived in countries that Nazi Germany would occupy or influence during World War II. By 1945, the Germans and their collaborators killed nearly two out of every three European Jews as part of the "Final Solution," the Nazi policy to murder the Jews of Europe.
Although Jews, whom the Nazis deemed a priority danger to Germany, were the primary victims of Nazi racism, other victims included some 200,000 Roma (Gypsies). At least 200,000 mentally or physically disabled patients, mainly Germans, living in institutional settings, were murdered in the so-called Euthanasia Program.
As Nazi tyranny spread across Europe, the Germans and their collaborators persecuted and murdered millions of other people. Between two and three million Soviet prisoners of war were murdered or died of starvation, disease, neglect, or maltreatment. The Germans targeted the non-Jewish Polish intelligentsia for killing, and deported millions of Polish and Soviet civilians for forced labor in Germany or in occupied Poland, where these individuals worked and often died under deplorable conditions.
From the earliest years of the Nazi regime, German authorities persecuted homosexuals and others whose behavior did not match prescribed social norms. German police officials targeted thousands of political opponents (including Communists, Socialists, and trade unionists) and religious dissidents (such as Jehovah's Witnesses). Many of these individuals died as a result of incarceration and maltreatment.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE "FINAL SOLUTION"
In the early years of the Nazi regime, the National Socialist government established concentration camps to detain real and imagined political and ideological opponents. Increasingly in the years before the outbreak of war, SS and police officials incarcerated Jews, Roma, and other victims of ethnic and racial hatred in these camps.
To concentrate and monitor the Jewish population as well as to facilitate later deportation of the Jews, the Germans and their collaborators created ghettos, transit camps, and forced-labor camps for Jews during the war years. The German authorities also established numerous forced-labor camps, both in the so-called Greater German Reich and in German-occupied territory, for non-Jews whose labor the Germans sought to exploit.
Following the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) and, later, militarized battalions of Order Police officials, moved behind German lines to carry out mass-murder operations against Jews, Roma, and Soviet state and Communist Party officials. German SS and police units, supported by units of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen SS, murdered more than a million Jewish men, women, and children, and hundreds of thousands of others.
Between 1941 and 1944, Nazi German authorities deported millions of Jews from Germany, from occupied territories, and from the countries of many of its Axis allies to ghettos and to killing centers, often called extermination camps, where they were murdered in specially developed gassing facilities.
THE END OF THE HOLOCAUST
In the final months of the war, SS guards moved camp inmates by train or on forced marches, often called “death marches,” in an attempt to prevent the Allied liberation of large numbers of prisoners. As Allied forces moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Germany, they began to encounter and liberate concentration camp prisoners, as well as prisoners en route by forced march from one camp to another. The marches continued until May 7, 1945, the day the German armed forces surrendered unconditionally to the Allies.
For the western Allies, World War II officially ended in Europe on the next day, May 8 (V-E Day), while Soviet forces announced their “Victory Day” on May 9, 1945.
In the aftermath of the Holocaust, many of the survivors found shelter in displaced persons (DP) camps administered by the Allied powers. Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews emigrated to Israel, including 136,000 Jewish displaced persons from Europe. Other Jewish DPs emigrated to the United States and other nations. The last DP camp closed in 1957.
The crimes committed during the Holocaust devastated most European Jewish communities and eliminated hundreds of Jewish communities in occupied eastern Europe entirely.
Bergen, Doris. War & Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1975.
Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1986.
Gutman, Israel, editor. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990.
Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003.
Yahil, Leni. The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Copyright © United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC