Biogeographical Classification Of India Essay For Kids

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India is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of biodiversity. This natural variation in life is also reflected in the demography of the land. Although the causes behind biodiversity and demographic diversity are different, the human population of the land has depended on the biodiversity in many ways for a long time. At the same time, today, the excessive human population of India is leading to a survival pressure on the biodiversity. Thus, it is important to know and appreciate the diversity in both - human population and flora and fauna.

Demographic diversity of India

Main article: Demographics of India

India is a remarkably diverse country. Arguably, only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.[1]. The country houses 1.2 billion people speaking 1652 languages and dialects[2], spread out over more than two thousand ethnicities and over every major religion.

The demographics of India are remarkably diverse. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.18 billion people (estimate for April, 2010), more than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.31% of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2025, surpassing China, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.[3][4] However, India has an astonishing demographic dividend where more than 50% of its population is below the age of 25 and more than 65% hovers below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.[5]

This demographic diversity of India is both good and bad for its biodiversity. Bad because of the enormous pressure the human population puts on the natural resources. And good because this human diversity has resulted in a plethora of customs, traditions and rituals in the context of native species. Plants and animals are considered sacred (eg: Ocimum tenuiflorum or Tulsi) or find mentions in mythological stories (eg: Elephas maximus indicus or Indian Elephant) or are used in religious rituals (eg: Nelumbo nucifera or Indian Lotus). These deep associations between biodiversity and culture presents us with a unique opportunity for their conservation. Click this link to read about the cultural associations of Indian biodiversity...

Flora and fauna of India

Main article:Fauna of India and Wildlife of India
India is a country rich in biological diversity. It lies within the Indomalaya ecozone and completely houses two of the 34 biodiversity hotspot in the world[6]. The third - Indo-Burma - lies partially within the Indian North-East.

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There is a huge species diversity in India, with several of the species being endemic to the their native ranges in India[citation needed].

Group
Number
% of world species
Mammals
350
7.6%
Birds
1224
12.6%
Amphibians
197
4.4%
Reptiles
408
6.2%
Fishes
2546
11.7%
Flowering plants
15000
6%

Sources: Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre (IGCMC), New Delhi [7] and IISc [8]

Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[9] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[10] As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[11] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. Read more about the origin of India here.....

Biodiversity vs Human progress

Main article: Wildlife of India

According to the 1994 IUCN assessment, India contained 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[12] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the dead bodies of diclofenac-treated cattle.

In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 15 biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 25 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.

The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of direct poverty of the people. However Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that, "The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures."[13]

Biodiversity hotspots

Main article:Fauna of India and Wildlife of India
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans. To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers 2000 edition of the hotspot-map, a region must meet two strict criteria:

  1. it must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics, and
  2. it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation.[14]

Around the world, at least 35 areas qualify under this definition. These sites support nearly 60% of the world's plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, with a very high share of endemic species. Four regions that satisfy these criteria exist in India and are described below. For a more detailed information about these hotspots, go to the Biodiversityhotspots.org homepage

The Western Ghats and Sri Lanka

About the region: The Western Ghats are a chain of hills that run along the western edge of peninsular India. Their proximity to the ocean and through orographic effect, they receive high rainfall. These regions have moist deciduous forest and rain forest. The region shows high species diversity as well as high levels of endemism. Nearly 77% of the amphibians and 62% of the reptile species found here are found nowhere else.[15]. Sri Lanka, which lies to the south of India, is also a country rich in species diversity. It has been connected with India through several past glaciation events by a land bridge almost 140kn wide[16].

How the biodiversity of Western Ghats originated is a still a puzzle. The region shows biogeographical affinities to the Malayan region. More recent phylogeographic studies have attempted to study the origin of Western Ghats using molecular approaches.[17] There are also differences in taxa which are dependent on time of divergence and geological history.[18] Along with Sri Lanka, this region also shows some faunal similarities with the Madagascan region especially in the reptiles and amphibians. Examples include the Sibynophis snakes, the Purple Frog and Sri Lankan lizard genus Nessia which appears similar to the Madagascan genus Acontias.[19] Numerous floral links to the Madagascan region also exist.[20] An alternate hypothesis that these taxa may have originally evolved out-of-India has also been suggested.[21]

Biogeographical quirks exist with some taxa of Malayan origin occurring in Sri Lanka but absent in the Western Ghats. These include insects groups such as the zoraptera and plants such as those of the genus Nepenthes.

Biodiversity: There are over 6000 vascular plants belonging to over 2500 genera in this hotspot, of which over 3000 are endemic. Much of the world's spices such as black pepper and cardamom have their origins in the Western Ghats. The highest concentration of species in the Western Ghats is believed to be the Agasthyamalai Hills in the extreme south. The region also harbors over 450 bird species, about 140 mammalian species, 260 reptiles and 175 amphibians. Over 60% of the reptiles and amphibians are completely endemic to the hotspot. Remarkable as this diversity is, it is severely threatened today. The vegetation in this hotspot originally extended over 190,000 square kms. Today, its been reduced to just 43,000 sq. km. In Sri Lanka, only 1.5% of the original forest cover still remains[16].

The Eastern Himalayas

About the region: The Eastern Himalayas is the region encompassing Bhutan, northeastern India, and southern, central, and eastern Nepal. The region is geologically young and shows high altitudinal variation. Together, the Himalayan mountain system is the world's highest, and home to the world's highest peaks, which include Mount Everest and K2. To comprehend the enormous scale of this mountain range, consider that Aconcagua, in the Andes, at 6962 metres is the highest peak outside Asia, whereas the Himalayan system includes over 100 mountains exceeding 7200 metres[22]. Some of the world's major river systems arise in the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin is home to some 3 billion people (almost half of Earth's population) in 18 countries. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia; many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

Geologically, the origin of the Himalayas is the impact of the Indian tectonic plate traveling northward at 15cm per year to impact the Eurasian continent, about 40-50 million years ago. The formation of the Himalayan arc resulted since the lighter rock of the seabeds of that time were easily uplifted into mountains. An often-cited fact used to illustrate this process is that the summit of Mount Everest is made of marine limestone.[23]

Biodiversity: The Eastern Himalayan hotspot has nearly 163 globally threatened species including the One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), the Wild Asian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis (Arnee)) and in all 45 mammals, 50 birds, 17 reptiles, 12 amphibians, 3 invertebrate and 36 plant species[24][25] The Relict Dragonfly (Epiophlebia laidlawi) is an endangered species found here with the only other species in the genus being found in Japan. The region is also home to the Himalayan Newt (Tylototriton verrucosus), the only salamander species found within Indian limits.[26]

There are an estimated 10,000 species of plants in the Himalayas, of which one-third are endemic and found nowhere else in the world. Five families - Tetracentraceae, Hamamelidaceae, Circaesteraceae, Butomaceae and Stachyuraceae - are completely endemic to this region. Many plant species are found even in the highest reaches of the Himalayan mountains. For example, a plant species Ermania himalayensis was found at an altitude of 6300 metres in northwestern Himalayas![27]. A few threatened endemic bird species such as the Himalayan Quail, Cheer pheasant, Western tragopan are found here, alongwith some of Asia's largest and most endangered birds such as the Himalayan vulture and White-bellied heron[27].

The Himalayas are home to over 300 species of mammals, a dozen of which are endemic. Mammals like the Golden langur, The Himalayan tahr, the pygmy hog, Langurs, Asiatic wild dogs, sloth bears, Gaurs, Muntjac, Sambar, Snow leopard, Black bear, Blue sheep, Takin, the Gangetic dolphin, wild water buffalo, swamp deer call the Himalayan ranged their home. The only endemic genus in the hotspot is the Namadapha flying squirrel which is critically endangered and is described only from a single specimen from Namdapha National Park[27].

Indo-Burma

About the region: The Indo-Burma region encompasses several countries. It is spread out from Eastern Bangladesh to Malaysia and includes North-Eastern India south of Brahmaputra river, Myanmar, the southern part of China's Yunnan province, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. The Indo-Burma region is spread over 2 million sq. km of tropical Asia. Since this hotspot is spread over such a large area and across several major landforms, there is a wide diversity of climate and habitat patterns in this region.

Biodiversity: Much of this region is still a wilderness, but has been deteriorating rapidly in the past few decades. In recent times, six species of large mammals have been discovered here: Large-antlered muntjac, Annamite muntjac, Grey-shanked douc, Annamite striped rabbit, Leaf deer, and the Saola. This region is home to several primate species such as monkeys , langurs and gibbons with populations numbering only in the hundreds. Many of the species, especially some freshwater turtle species, are endemic. Almost 1,300 bird species exist in this region including the threatened white-eared night-heron, the grey-crowned crocias, and the orange-necked partridge. It is estimated that there are about 13,500 plant species in this hotspot, with over half of them endemic. Ginger, for example, is native to this region. [28]

Sundaland

Sundaland is a region in South-East Asia that covers the western part of the Indo-Malayan archipelago. It includes Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Indonesia. India is represented by the Nicobar Islands. The United Nations declared the islands a World Biosphere Reserve in 2013. The islands have a rich terrestrial and marine ecosystem that includes mangroves, coral reefs and sea grass beds. The marine biodiversity includes several species such as whales, dolphis, dugong, turtles, crocodiles, fishes, prawns, lobsters, corals and sea shells [29]. The primary threat to this biodiversity comes from over exploitation of marine resources. In addition, the forests on the island also need to be protected.

Reasons for biodiversity loss in hotspots

There are four main reasons why species are being threatened in these biodiversity hotspots

  1. Habitat destruction: As recently as 30 years ago, most of the regions in these biodiversity hotspots were inaccessible and remote. Now, due to better infrastructure, contact of these areas with humans has increased. Activities such as logging of wood, increased agriculture, increased human habitation has led to destruction of forests and pollution of rivers. These factors are causing species ranges to reduce and habitats to become choppy. The government planned to establish habitat corridors, but these plans have not yet materialized in most areas. Activities such as mining, construction of large dams, highway construction has also caused significant destruction of habitats[30].
  2. Resource mismanagement: Increased tourism without proper regulation has led to pollution and environmental degradation. Prime example are pilgrimage destinations like Rishikesh and hill stations like Dehradoon. These spots, once nestled in the pristine ranges of the Himalayas, are now dirty commercial destinations. Places like Dehradoon are even experiencing a construction boom so large that illegal immigrants from Bangladesh are also flocking there[31]. Religious destinations in the Himalayas, where devotees flock in millions now, are also hot destinations for medicinal plant trade, which has threatened plant life in the area.
  3. Poaching: Large mammals such as the tiger, rhinoceros and the elephant once faced the distinct possibility of complete extinction due to rampant hunting and poaching. However, efforts by conservationists since the 1970s has helped stabilize and grow these populations. Still, the trade in tiger hide, elephant tusks, tiger teeth, rhinoceros horn remains profitable and rampant[32][33].
  4. Climate change: Although dire IPCC predictions of Himalayan glaciers melting by 2035 have been retracted[34], there is no doubt that several Himalayan glaciers are melting[35][36]. In the Western Ghats, studies have shown that the deciduous and the evergreen forests of Karnataka are the most at risk[37][38]. Climate change may significantly affect the temperatures, rainfalls and water tables in the Western Ghats, according to an assessment by the Government of India.

Recent extinctions

The exploitation of land and forest resources by humans along with hunting and trapping for food and sport has led to the extinction of many species in India in recent times. These species include mammals such as the Indian / Asiatic Cheetah, Javan Rhinoceros and Sumatran Rhinoceros.[39] While some of these large mammal species are confirmed extinct, there have been many smaller animal and plant species whose status is harder to determine. Many species have not been seen since their description.

Hubbardia heptaneuron, a species of grass that grew in the spray zone of the Jog Falls prior to the construction of the Linganamakki reservoir, was thought to be extinct but a few were rediscovered near Kolhapur in Maharashtra.[40]

Some species of birds have gone extinct in recent times, including the Pink-headed Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) and the Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa). A species of warbler, Acrocephalus orinus, known earlier from a single specimen collected by Allan Octavian Hume from near Rampur in Himachal Pradesh was rediscovered after 139 years in Thailand.[41][42]

Further reading and external sites

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References

  1. ^India, a Country StudyUnited States Library of Congress, Note on Ethnic groups
  2. ^Mother Tongues of India According to the 1961 Census
  3. ^BBC - India's population 'to be biggest' in the planet
  4. ^United States Census Bureau - International Data Base (IDB)
  5. ^India's demographic dividend
  6. ^Hotspots by region
  7. ^Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre (IGCMC), New Delhi and the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), World Conservation Monitoring Center, Cambridge, UK. 2001.
  8. ^Biodiversity profile for India.
  9. ^K. Praveen Karanth. (2006). Out-of-India Gondwanan origin of some tropical Asian biota
  10. ^Tritsch, M.E. 2001. Wildlife of India Harper Collins, London. 192 pages. ISBN 0-00-711062-6
  11. ^Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre (IGCMC), New Delhi and the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), World Conservation Monitoring Center, Cambridge, UK. 2001. Biodiversity profile for India.
  12. ^Groombridge, B. (ed). 1993. The 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. lvi + 286 pp.
  13. ^Krausman, PR & AJT Johnsingh (1990) Conservation and wildlife education in India. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18:342-347
  14. ^Myers, N. et al. Nature 403, 853–858 (2000)
  15. ^Daniels, R. J. R. (2001) Endemic fishes of the Western Ghats and the Satpura hypothesis. Current Science 81(3):240-244
  16. ^ abBiodiversityhotspots.org (Western Ghats and Sri Lanka) at the Hotspots explorer. Accessed: Oct 11, 2011
  17. ^Karanth, P. K. (2003) Evolution of disjunct distributions among wet-zone species of the Indian subcontinent: Testing various hypotheses using a phylogenetic approach Current Science, 85(9): 1276-1283
  18. ^Biswas, S. and Pawar S. S. (2006) Phylogenetic tests of distribution patterns in South Asia: towards an integrative approach; J. Biosci. 31 95–113
  19. ^Affinities of Sri Lankan reptiles
  20. ^Biogeography of Madagascar
  21. ^Karanth, P. 2006 Out-of-India Gondwanan origin of some tropical Asian biota. Current Science 90(6):789-792
  22. ^Yang, Qinye (2004). Himalayan Mountain System. ISBN 9787508506654. http://books.google.com/?id=4q_XoMACOxkC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA23&dq=%22South+Tibet+Valley%22. Retrieved 2007-08-07. 
  23. ^A site which uses this dramatic fact first used in illustration of "deep time" in John McPhee's book Basin and Range
  24. ^Conservation International 2006
  25. ^Ecosystem Profile: Eastern Himalayas Region, 2005
  26. ^Amphibian Species of the World - Desmognathus imitator Dunn, 1927
  27. ^ abcBiodiversity hotspot.org (Himalayas) at the Hotspots Explorer. Accessed: Oct 10, 2011
  28. ^Biodiversity hotspots.org (Burma)Accessed: Nov 15, 2010
  29. ^Report:COMMITTEE CONSTITUTED TO HOLISTICALLY ADDRESS THE ISSUE OF POACHING IN THE ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS Sep 2011
  30. ^Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named
  31. ^At India-Bangladesh Border, Living in Both, and Neither NYTimes. Published: Oct 10, 2011. Accessed: Oct 10, 2011
  32. ^Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named
  33. ^Pardoned Poacher Arrested with Rhino Toes in Nepal Rhinoconservation.org. Accessed: Oct 10, 2011
  34. ^IPCC retracts 2035 alarm on Himalayan glacier meltTimes of India. Published: Jan 21, 2010. Accessed: Oct 16, 2011.
  35. ^Rivers of ice: Stunning images of the Himalayas show how much glaciers have shrunk over 80 yearsDailymail.co.uk. Published: Oct 14, 2011. Accessed: Oct 16, 2011
  36. ^Glacier lakes: Growing danger zones in the Himalayas Published: Oct 16, 2011. Accessed: Oct 16, 2011
  37. ^Northern and central parts of Western Ghats most vulnerable to climate change Published: Aug 17, 2011. Accessed: Oct 16, 2011
  38. ^Climate change and forests in the Western Ghats A presentation by Dr. R. Sukumar, CES, IISc
  39. ^Vivek Menon (2003). A field guide to Indian mammals. Dorling Kindersley, Delhi. 
  40. ^IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) E-Bulletin - December 2002 [1] Accessed October 2006
  41. ^Threatened birds of Asia [2] Accessed October 2006
  42. ^The Nation, March 6, 2007

Biodiversity hotspots in India

By: Gaurav Moghe. Published: October 7, 2011


This article is a compilation of specific sections of multiple Wikipedia articles, along with information from other sources and original content, intended to create a single story on the above topic. Find more articles by clicking this link.

Now the world's rarest monkey, the golden langur typifies the precarious survival of much of India's megafauna.
The Indian Rhinoceros is one of the 45 species of globally threatened mammals found in the Eastern Himalayas.
The Saola, a bovine, is one of the world's rarest mammals. It was discovered in Vietnam only in 1992

The term biodiversity was coined as a contraction of biological diversity by E.O. Wilson in 1985. Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they exist. In other words, biodiversity is the occurrence of different types of ecosystems, different species of organisms with the whole range of their variants and genes adapted to different climates, environments along with their interactions and processes.

Biodiversity includes the genetic variability (forwhich different varieties of spices have appeared in the course of evolution) and diversity of life forms such as plants, animal microbes, etc. living in a wide range of ecosystems.

Contents:

1. Types of Biodiversity

2. Biodiversity of India

3. Importance of Biodiversity

4. Uses of Biodiversity

5. Threats to Biodiversity

6. Conservation of Biodiversity

The diversity may be interspecific (within species) and interspecific (in betweenthe species) but these are well supported by ecosystem. It is seen that the diverse living forms of the ecosystem are modulated with the global environmental changes.

1. Types of Biodiversity:

There are three interrelated hierarchical levels of biodiversity namely, genetic diversity, species diversity and community or ecosystem diversity.

The discussion on each type of diversity is given below:

1. Genetic diversity:

It describes the variation in the number and types of genes as well as chromosomes present in different species. The magnitude of variation in genes of a species increases with increase in size and environmental parameters of the habitat.

The genetic variation arises by gene and chromosome mutation in individuals and in sexually reproducing organisms and it is spread in the population by recombination of genetic materials during cell division after sexual reproduction.

Genetic diversity has the following importance:

(i) It helps in speciation or evolution of new species;

(ii) It is useful in adaptation to changes in environmental conditions;

(iii) It is important for agricultural productivity and development.

2. Species diversity:

It describes the variety in the number and richness of the spices with in a region. The species richness may be defined as the number of species per unit area. The richness of a species tells about the extent of biodiversity of a site and provides a means for comparing different sites.

The species richness depends largely on climatic conditions. The number of individuals of different species with in a region represents species evenness or species equitability. The product species richness and species evenness give species diversity of aregion. When a species is confined entirely to a particular area, it is termed as endemic species.

3. Ecosystem diversity:

It describes the assemblage and Interaction of spices living together and the physical environment a given area. It relates varieties of habitats, biotic communities ecological processes in biosphere. It also tells about the diversity within the ecosystem. It is referred as Land escape diversity because it includes placement and size of various ecosystems.

For example, the landscapes like grass lands, deserts, mountains etc. show ecosystem diversity. The ecosystem diversity is due to diversity of niches, trophic levels and ecological processes like nutrient cycling, food webs, energy flow, role of dominant species and various related biotic interactions. Such type of diversity can generate more productive and stable ecosystems or communities capable of tolerating various types of stresses e.g. drought, flood etc.

According to Whittaker (1965), the community diversities are of three types:

(i)α-Diversity:

It tells the species diversity in a given community.

It depends upon species richness and evenness.

(ii) β-Diversity:

It describes a range of communities due to replacement of species which arises due to the presence of different microhabitats, niches and environmental conditions.

(iii) γ -Diversity:

It describes diversity of habitat over a total land escape or geographical area.

2. Biodiversity of India:

As per available data, the varieties of species living on the earth are 1753739. Out of the above species, 134781 are residing in India although surface area of India is 2% of the earth’s surface. Wild life Institute of India has divided it into ten biogeographical regions and twenty five biotic provinces.

Biogeographical regions are:

(i) Trans Himalayas,

(ii) Gangetic plain,

(iii) Desert,

(iv) Semiarid zone;

(v) Western Ghats;

(vi) Deccan peninsula,

(vii) North eastern zone,

(viii) Coastal lands

(ix) Himalayas,

(x) Islands.

India is one of the twelve mega diversity nations of the world due to the following reasons:

(i) It has 7.3% of the global fauna and 10.88% of global flora as per the data collected by Ministry of Environment and forest.

(ii) It has 350 different mammals, 1200 species of birds- 453 different reptiles, 182 amphibians and 45,000 plants spices.

(iii) It has 50,000 known species of insects which include 13,000 butterflies and moths.

(iv) It has 10 different biogeographical regions and 25 biotic provinces having varieties of lands and species.

(v) In addition to geographical distribution, geological events in the land mass provide high level of biological diversity.

(vi) Several crops arose in the country and spread throughout the world.

(vii) There is wide variety of domestic animals like cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, horses etc.

(viii) The marine biota includes sea weeds, fishes, crustaceans, molluses, corals, reptiles etc.

(ix) There are a number of hot spots (namely Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, North Eastern hills etc.).

3. Importance of Biodiversity:

The living organisms on earth are of great diversity, living in diverse habitats and possessing diverse qualities and are vital to human existence providing food, shelter, clothing’s, medicines etc.

The biodiversity has the following importance’s:

1. Productive values:

Biodiversity produces a number of products harvested from nature and sold in commercial markets. Indirectly it provides economic benefits to people which include water quality soil protection, equalisation of climate, environmental monitoring, scientific research, recreation etc.

2. Consumptive value:

The consumptive value can be assigned to goods such as fuel woods, leaves, forest products etc. which may be consumed locally and do not figure in national and international market.

3. Social value:

The loss of biodiversity directly influences the social life of the country possibly through influencing ecosystem functions (energy flow and biogeochemical cycle). This be easily understood by observing detrimental effects of global warming and acid rain which cause an unfavorable alteration in logical processes.

4. Aesthetic value:

Aesthetic values such as refreshing fragrance of the flowers, taste of berries, softness of mossed, melodious songs of birds, etc. compel the human beings to preserve them. The earth’s natural beauty with its colour and hues, thick forest, and graceful beasts has inspired the human beings from their date of birth to take necessary steps for its maintenance. Similarly botanical and zoological gardens are the means of biodiversity conservation and are of aesthetic values.

5. Legal values:

Since earth is homeland of all living organisms, all have equal right to coexist on the surface of earth with all benefits. Unless some legal value is attached to biodiversity, it will not be possible to protect the rapid extinction of species.

6. Ethical value:

Biodiversity must be seen in the light of holding ethical value. Since man is the most intelligent amongst the living organisms, it should be prime responsibility and moral obligation of man to preserve and conserve other organisms which will directly or indirectly favour the existence of the man.

7. Ecological value:

Biodiversity holds great ecological value because it is indispensable to maintain the ecological balance. Any disturbance in the delicately fabricated ecological balance maintained by different organisms, will lead to severe problems, which may threaten the survival of human beings.

8. Economic value:

Biodiversity has great economic value because economic development depends upon efficient and economic management of biotic resources.

In the day to day life, human beings are maintaining their lifestyle at the sacrifice of surrounding species which come from diversity of plants and animals struggling for their existence.

So, it is highly essential for the human beings to take care of their surrounding species and make optimum use of their service, for better economic development. Thus, it is rightly told, survival of the man depends upon the survival of the biosphere.

4. Uses of Biodiversity:

Biodiversity has the following uses for the development humanity:

(i) It provides food of all types.

(ii) It provides fibers, sources for the preparation of clothes.

(iii) It provides different types of oil seeds for the preparation of oils.

(iv) It provides new varieties of rice, potato etc. through the process of hybridization.

(v) It provides different drugs and medicines which are based on different plant products.

(vi) It is very essential for natural pest control, maintenance of population of various species, pollination by insects and birds, nutrient cycling, conservation and purification of water, formation of soil etc. All these services together are valued 16.54 trillion dollars per year.

5. Threats to Biodiversity:

Biodiversity is considered as a reservoir of resources to be used for the manufacture of food, medicine, industrial products, etc. But with an increased demand of rapid population growth, biodiversity is gradually depleting. A number of plants” and ani­mal species have already become extinct and many are endan­gered.

The different factors responsible for causing threat to biodiversity are as follows:

1. Habitat destruction:

The primary cause of loss of biodiversity is habitat loss or destruction which is resulted due to the large industrial and commercial activities associated with agriculture, irrigation, construction of dams, mining, fishing etc.

2. Habitat fragmentation:

With increased population, the habitats are fragmented into pieces by roads, fields, canals, power lines, towns etc. The isolated fragment of habitats restricts the potential of species for dispersal and colonization. In addition, the habitat fragmentation also brings about microclimatic changes inlight, temperature, wind etc.

3. Pollution:

The most dreaded factor inducing loss of biodiversity is environmental pollution which include air pollution, Water pollution, industrial pollution, pollution due to chemical Pastes, pesticides radioactive materials etc.

4. Over exploitation:

The natural resources are over exploited to meet growing rural poverty, intensive technological growth and globalization of economy. All these factors together may be responsible for the extinction of a number of species.

5. Introduction of exotic species:

The introduction of exotic species are due to:

(i) horticulture

(ii) agriculture;

(iii) European colonisation and

(iv) accidental transport.

It is seen that some exotic species may kill or eat the native species thereby causing its extinction.

6. Diseases:

Since the animals are more vulnerable to infection, the anthropological activities may increase the incidence of diseases in wild species, leading to their extinction.

7. Shifting or Jhum cultivation:

The shifting or Jhum cultivation by poor tribal people greatly affects the forest structure which is a store house of biodiversity.

8. Poaching of wild life:

A number of wildlife species are becoming extinct due to poaching and hunting.

Table 5.1: Endangered and Endemic Species of India

Category Enlisted species Highly endangered Species.

1. Higher plants

15,000

135

2. Mammals

372

69

3. Reptiles and amphibians

580

22

4. Birds

1175

40

5. Fishes

1693

6. Conservation of Biodiversity:

Biodiversity is being depleted by the loss of habitat, fragmentation of habitat, over exploitation of resources, human sponsored ecosystems, climatic changes, pollution invasive exotic spices, diseases, shifting cultivation, poaching of wild life etc.

Since the human beings are enjoying all the benefits from biodiversity, they should take proper care for the preservation of biodiversity in all its form and good health for the future generation i.e., the human being should prevent the degradation and destruction of the habitats thereby maintaining the biodiversity at its optimum level.

Conservation of biodiversity is protection, upliftment and scientific management of biodiversity so as to maintain it at its threshold level and derive sustainable benefits for the present and future generation. In other words, conservation of bio-diversity is the proper management of the biosphere by human beings in such a way that it gives maximum benefits for the present generation and also develops its potential so as to meet the needs of the future generations.

Mainly the conservation of biodiversity has three basic objectives:

(a) To maintain essential ecological processes and life supporting systems.

(b) To preserve the diversity of species.

(c) To make sustainable utilisation of species and ecosystems.

Strategies for Conservation of Biodiversity:

The following strategies should be undertaken in order to con­serve biodiversity:

(1) All the possible varieties (old or new) of food, forage and timber plants, live stock, agriculture animals and microbes should be conserved.

(2) All the economically important organisms in protected areas should be identified and conserved.

(3) Critical habitats for each species should be identified and safeguarded.

(4) Priority should be given to preserve unique ecosystems.

(5) There should be sustainable utilisation of resources.

(6) International trade in wild life should be highly regulated.

(7) The poaching and hunting of wildlife should be prevented as far as practicable.

(8) Care should be taken for the development of reserves and protected areas.

(9) Efforts should be made to reduce the level of pollutants in the environment.

(10) Public awareness should be created regarding biodiversity and its importance for the living organisms.

(11) Priority should be given in wildlife conservation programme to endangered species over vulnerable species and to vulnerable species over rare species.

(12) The habitats of migratory birds should be protected by bilateral and multilateral agreement.

(13) The over exploitation of useful products of wild life should be prevented.

(14) The useful animals, plants and their wild relatives should be protected both in their natural habitat (in-situ) and in zoological botanical gardens (ex-situ)

(15) Efforts should be made for setting up of National parks and wild life sanctuaries to safeguard the genetic diversity and their continuing evolution.

(16) Environmental laws should be strictly followed.

Conservation Methods:

There are two types of conservation methods namely in-situ and ex-situ conservations. Let us discuss the different conservation methods along with their importance.

(a) In situ conservation:

The conservation of species in their natural habitat or natural ecosystem is known as in situ conservation. In the process, the natural surrounding or ecosystem is protected and maintained so that all the constituent species (known or unknown) are conserved and benefited. The factors which are detrimental to the existence of species concerned are eliminated by suitable mechanism.

The different advantages of in situ conservation are as follows:

(a) If is a cheap and convenient way of conserving biological diversity.

(b) It offers a way to preserve a large number of organisms simultaneously, known or unknown to us.

(c) The existence in natural ecosystem provides opportunity to the living organisms to adjust to differed’ environmental conditions and to evolve in to a better life form.

The only disadvantage of in situ conservation is that it requires large space of earth which is often difficult because of growing demand for space. The protection and management of biodiversity through in situ conservation involve certain specific areas known as protected areas which include national parks, Sanctuaries and Biosphere reserves.

1. Protected areas:

The protected areas are biogeographical areas where biological diversity along with natural and cultural resources are protected, maintained and managed through legal and administrative measures. The demarcation of biodiversity in each area is determined on the basis of climatic and physiological conditions.

In these areas, hunting, firewood collection, timber harvesting etc. are prohibited so that the wild plants and animals can grow and multiply freely without any hindrance. Some protected areas are: Cold desert (Ladakh and Spiti), Hot desert (Thar), Saline Swampy area (Sunderban and Rann of Kutch), Tropical moist deciduous forest (Western Ghats and north East) etc. Protected areas include national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves. There are 37,000 protected areas throughout the world. As per World Conservation Monitoring Centre, India has 581 protected areas, national parks and sanctuaries.

2. National parks:

These are the small reserves meant for the protection of wild life and their natural habitats. These are maintained by government. The area of national parks ranges between 0.04 to 3162 km. The boundaries are well demarcated and circumscribed. The activities like grazing forestry, cultivation and habitat manipulation are not permitted in these areas. There are about 89 national parks in India.

Some important national Parks of India are:

(i) Biological Park, Nandankanan, Orissa,

(ii) Corbett national Park Nainital, U.P. (First national Park)

(iii) Koziranga national Park, Jorhat, Assam

(iv) Tudula national Park, Maharashtra

(v) Hazaribagh national Park, Hazaribagh, Bihar

(vi) Band havgarh national park, M.P.

(vii) Bandipur national park, Karnataka.

(viii) Kanha National Park, M.P.

(ix) Reibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur

(x) Nawgaon National Park, Maharashtra

3. Sanctuaries:

These are the areas where only wild animals (fauna) are present. The activities like harvesting of timbers, collection of forest products, cultivation of lands etc. are permitted as long as these do not interfere with the project. That is, controlled biotic interference is permitted in sanctuaries, which allows visiting of tourists for recreation. The area under a sanctuary remains in between 0.61 to 7818 km.

Some important sanctuaries of Orissa are as follows:

(i) Nandankanan Zoological Park

(ii) Chandaka Elephant reserve

(iii) Simlipal Tiger Reserve

(iv) Bhitarkanika Wild life Sanctuary

(v) Gharial project at Tikarpada

(vi) Chilika (Nalaban) Sanctuary

4. Biosphere reserves:

Biosphere reserves or natural reserves are multipurpose protected areas with boundaries circumscribed by legislation. The main aim of biosphere reserve is to preserve genetic diversity in representative ecosystems by protecting wild animals, traditional life style of inhabitant and domesticated plant/ animal genetic resources. These are scientifically managed allowing only the tourists to visit.

Some importance of biosphere reserves are as follows:

(a) These help in the restoration of degraded ecosystem.

(b) The main role of these reserves is to preserve genetic resources, species, ecosystems, and habitats without disturbing the habitants.

(c) These maintain cultural, social and ecologically sustainable economic developments.

(d) These support education and research in various ecological aspects,

Some important biosphere reserves are:

Simlipal, (Orissa), Sunderban (West Bengal), Kanha (M.P Kaziranga (Assam) etc. The biosphere reserve net work was intro­duced by UNESCO 1971.

(b) Ex-situ conservation:

Ex-situ conservation involves maintenance and breeding of endangered plants and animals under partially or wholly control­led conditions in specific areas like zoo, gardens, nurseries etc. That is, the conservation of selected plants and animals in se­lected areas outside their natural habitat is known as ex-situ con­servation.

The stresses on living organisms due to competition for food, water, space etc. can be avoided by ex-situ conservation there by providing conditions necessary for a secure life and breeding.

Some important areas under these conservation are:

(i) Seed gene bank,

(ii) Field gene bank;

(iii) Botanical gardens;

(iv) Zoos.

The strategies for ex-situ conservations are:

(i) Identification of species to be conserved.

(ii) Adoption of Different ex-situ methods of conservation.

(i) Long-term captive breeding and propagation for the species which have lost their habitats permanently.

(ii) Short-term propagation and release of the animals in their natural habitat

(iii) Animal translocation

(iv) Animal reintroduction

(v) Advanced technology in the service of endangered species.

The different advantages of ex-situ conservation are:

(a) It gives longer life time and breeding activity to animals.

(b) Genetic techniques can be utilised in the process.

(c) Captivity breed species can again be reintroduced in the wild.

Some disadvantages of this method are:

(a) The favourable conditions may not be maintained always.

(b) Mew life forms cannot evolve.

(c) This technique involves only few species.

Hot Spots:

Hot spots are the areas with high density of biodiversity or mega diversity which are most threatened at present. There are 16 hot spots in world, out of which two are located in India namely North-East Himalayas and Western Ghats.

The hot spots are determined considering four factors:

(i) Degrees of endemism;

(ii) Degree of expectation

(iii) Degrees of threat to habitat due to its degradation and fragmentation and

(iv) Number of Species diversity.

The global hot spot and endemic species present within them are:

(1) North East Himalayas (3,500);

(ii) Western Ghats (1,600);

(iii) Cape region of South Africa (6,000);

(iv) Upland Western Amazonia (5,000);

(v) Madagascar (4,900);

(vi) Philippines (3,700)

(vii) Boreo (3, 500);

(viii) South West Australia (2,830);

(ix) Western Ecuador (2,500);

(x) Colombian Choco (2,500);

(xi) Peninsular Malaysia) (2, 400);

(xii) Californian Floristic Province (2,140);

(xiii) Central Chile (1,450);

(xiv) Eastern Arc. Mts (Tanzania) (535);

(xv) South West Srilanka (500);

(xvi) South west Tvorie (200).

Different mechanisms involved in the conservation of biodiversity is shown in Fig. 5.1.

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